About BIM for Infrastructure Development

BIM’s model-centric approach provides an up-to-date and the shared understanding of the projects to all the stakeholders. Since BIM can simulate almost all aspects of a project from the beginning to the end, it is finally entering the mainstream of infrastructure. BIM, for once, has changed the nature of designing, constructing and delivering an infrastructure project. It is one of the major tools of the present scenario, which can dig out all the possibilities of improvement in productivity, quality, cost, asset management and construction in the infrastructure field.

BIM is rising as a future for the old ways of working which are no more sufficient. Public, Private and government sectors are focused on BIM to moderate the lifecycle costs and deprecate the gaps in the funding to meet the dire infrastructure needs of the world. Certainly, BIM is a big relief for the infrastructure development sector.

A factory controlled environment of producing infrastructure solutions instead of construction on-site, provided by DFMA, is the edge that brings multiple improvements, possibilities, less time-consuming and cost-effective to the infrastructure sector. DFMA clubbed with BIM unlocks limitless opportunities and great potential for the construction field.

Transferring and sharing the information is one crucial aspect to BIM and DFMA. It is vital to design with BIM to open more practical means of creating and maintaining assets. The most practical and cost-effective way to receive high rates of productivity on site is to adopt the offsite approach of DFMA and utilising the BIM technology together. With a closer approach to it, it becomes very clear that the disciplinary and collaborative approach that is provided and facilitated by BIM goes hand in hand with the needs of prefabrication for the early coordination and the 3D designing information that is required by DFMA for its offsite approach.

Install an AGP Graphics Card

Power Down Your System

To install video card components correctly in your computer you will have to begin by powering your system down first. This is a matter of safety and precaution.

Always make sure your computer is completely shut down before you install video card components or any other internal part for that matter. After you shut down your computer you also need to cut off the juice to the power supply. If you’ve never done this before, take a look at the back of your computer. You will see a switch where the power supply is. Flip that switch into the off position. Finally, pull the AC power cord.

It may have never occurred to you that you would need to do all of this, but it’s important that we show you how to install computer components the right way. Rule 1 is to make sure there is absolutely no power going into the system. Any latent surges will fry your system in a heartbeat and could injure you in the process.

Opening Up the Computer Case

Next we will have to open up the case. Since we are learning how to install an AGP graphics card, and that card goes inside your computer, we will have to remove the case.

Don’t worry about this procedure though. Perhaps you have experience in knowing how to install computer components like external hard drives, but said you would never poke around inside your computer. Really, it’s not that hard.

Before you can open your case however you need to find out what kind of case you have. That will determine how your particular case is to be opened. If you have something like a mini-tower, you can open this case by removing one of the side panels. Be sure to remove the side that’s above the motherboard. Simply remove the screws in the back of the computer that hold the panel onto the chassis and then lift it off.

Some older style cases, however, require that you remove the whole back cover off and slide the chassis out. Check your particular model and see how it’s designed.

Remove PC Slot Cover

Before you can install video card components like the AGP graphics card, you will need to remove the PC slot cover in the back of the computer.

Look at the back of your computer and you’ll see what we mean. There are a series of several metal latches facing the slots where you can insert internal computer components. Most of these metal latches are secured by one or two screws. When it comes times to insert a component, like a modem, for example, you will need to first remove the metal latch in front of the slot before you insert the component.

With the AGP graphics card the process is the same. First locate the AGP graphics card slot. There is only one slot that will correctly match your card, so you’re in luck. Then unscrew the metal latch in front of the AGP graphics card slot, slide the latch out, and set the screws in a safe place.

Installing the AGP Card into its Slot

Now comes the part you’ve been waiting for, knowing how to install an AGP graphics card into its slot. Again, there is only one card on the motherboard that matches your AGP card, so don’t worry about putting it into the wrong slot.

If you’re not sure, look at the bottom of the AGP card to match it up with possible slots on you. The AGP card slot stands out from all of the other slots on your motherboard, kind of in its own little corner.

When you’re ready, align the AGP graphics card above its slot. Hold the card with your fingers from both ends and press it down into the slot until it seats firmly. Make sure that it’s firmly pressed into the slot. If anyone part of the card is sticking out, push it back in. Then secure the card into the motherboard by screwing the retaining screw into the motherboard.

Plugging In the Monitor, Closing Up and Powering Up

With your card properly installed, it’s time to plug in your monitor. That wasn’t so bad, was it? Little by little, you’re learning how to install computer components until you become a real pro! Find your monitor cable and plug it into the AGP card monitor connector.

If your card has more than one connector, this means that your card can support more than one monitor. Check your documentation to determine which is the appropriate connector for your monitor. Plug it in, and you’ll be good to go!

Not it’s time to close up and power up. Place the computer cover back onto your computer. Screw it back on using the screws that (hopefully) you remembered to set in a safe place earlier. Now it’s time to power up.

Flip your power supply’s power switch back on, and then plug the AC cord into wall outlet. Then, reboot your computer. To correctly install video card components, as with other components, you also need to install software drivers. Locate the CD that came with your card and insert into your computer when it reboots. Follow the instructions to install the appropriate software drivers.

Autoresponder Software

Auto-responder packages are useful as they free you up from the mundane repetition of responding to individual emails, allowing you to focus on higher-value tasks. But the software’s utility extends far beyond just creating automated emails:

  • Autoresponder software can also be used to capture customer information (e.g. such as how many of those signing up to a site respond to the site’s various marketing campaigns).
  • In addition, some software has a useful “follow-up” function: that is, it can be tailored to prompt potential customers, who may not wish to buy products from your site straight away, to make purchases later on.
  • It can also play an important role in assisting internet marketers to build their customer lists and organise their email campaigns.

In addition, the autoresponder package offered by AWeber Communications (a company that develops email marketing software to assist businesses in automating email follow ups and newsletter delivery via email) has several other advantages:

  • Easy to use interface

Unlike many autoresponders, the AWeber package is easy to understand and navigate – you’ll be up and running in just a few hours.

  • Low cost trial and licence costs

You can trial the AWeber autoresponder package for a month for just US$1.00. After that, should you wish to continue to use the software, the monthly cost is quite reasonable.

  • Tracks your “promotional efforts”

As above, the AWeber autoresponder can also generate useful business information by tracking the success of your promotions, letting you know what works and what doesn’t.

Android App Developers

Make a great first impression

According to Branagan, the success of an app can be estimated as soon as it hits the Google Play. On this platform, around 2.2 billion applications are available for download and install. If you want to stand out from this crowd, you have to have something that will appeal to the viewers.

Head to communities

If you have some doubts on your mind, don’t worry. You can head to online communities. On these forums, expert developers are always ready to give answers to important questions to help each other out.

Listen to your audience

For earning the trust and loyalty of your target audience, you may want to listen to them. Aside from this, it will make it easier for you to grow your number of users. Moreover, feedback from them will help you make necessary changes to your app for a better experience. Keep in mind that good work gets a lot of appreciation.

Grab a great idea

If you work independently, chances are that you will achieve success provided your app idea is revolutionary. But even if it’s not revolutionary, it should provide value with the users.

Learn to criticize your work

While it’s a good idea to believe in yourself, you may want to learn to criticize your products. Once you are done with an app, ask yourself why others should download and use it.

What should be your goal? Your goal should be to make an app that will solve a problem that many users have out there. By solving their problems, your app will make their lives easier. So, what you need to do is choose a niche that can help you provide the solutions you may have.

Develop a portfolio

If you want to attract more clients as a freelance app developer, know that you must have an awesome portfolio. Creating work samples is of utmost importance, especially if you are just starting out. As a matter of fact, we can’t deny the importance of having a great portfolio.

Understand the Market

It’s important for you to find out how the users of Android behave. Know that Android has a lot more users than its alternatives in the world, but they won’t pay as much as they users of iOS would pay.

CD Rom Copiers

CD-Rom copiers work on the pits and hills technology. CD-Roms are coated with an organic dye layer. When the CD-Roms are written, the data is encoded onto them by burning specific parts of the organic dye coating. These parts are called as the pits and the remaining parts are called as the hills. While copying, a laser head reads the pits and hills and then burns the corresponding regions on the blank CDs. Thus, the same data is transferred onto the blank CDs.

CD-Rom copiers may be PC attached or standalone. PC attached CD-Rom copiers connect to the SCSI port of any computer. They use the copying software that is installed on the host computer. PC attached CD-ROM copiers can have speeds up to 40 times.

Standalone CD-Rom copiers do not need a PC attachment. They have a hard disc of their own. Such CD-Rom copiers are designed in a tower format. Standalone CD-Rom copiers actually contain several single CD-Rom copiers. Thus, several CDs can be burned at once on a standalone. They may contain as many as 2 to 16 unitary drives. They can have speeds as high as 52 times.

Automated CD-Rom copiers make work much faster and efficient. They have a robotic arm, which lifts and removes CD-Roms as they are copied into another spindle. Automated CD-Rom copiers can copy hundreds of CDs without the user having to interfere with the process at all.

CD-Rom copiers make it easy to make copies of game CDs, which are all CD-Roms. Necessary software can be used to crack the file and include that too in the copied CDs. CD-Roms having video, sound and extreme graphics can also be copied.

Use To Pirate Retro Software


Spectrum and C64 software came on cassette tapes which were inserted into data recorders (or tape recorders) and could be loaded into memory by typing a command such as load””. These computers relied on a series of sound signals which were never pleasant to listen to as they were horrible screeching sounds. Quite often you would have to wait up to ten minutes (for a Spectrum 128k game especially) to load when it could crash, meaning you had to re-adjust the volume and start again. In case of a low recording, the game cassette would usually have a separate copy on the other side.
Most people could copy these games by using a hi-fi system with twin cassette decks. By inserting the original game cassette in the first deck and pressing “play”, and inserting a blank cassette in the second deck and pressing “play and record” you could get a perfect copy. You could buy cassette tapes for saving data such as a C15 which allows you to record up to fifteen minutes. Some people would use a C90 which would allow them to store many games at once.

If you didn’t have access to twin cassette decks then you could use software. On the Spectrum you could use something like “007Spy” which would allow you to load the entire game into memory and then back up onto a blank cassette. Some games had different ways of loading such as the pulsing (or clicking) loaders, a method used by many Ocean Software games. This led to the release of other software capable of tackling these loaders. The average Spectrum game would consist of a short piece of code (the header), a loading screen and the main code. This is the standard loader, easy to copy.

When the Spectrum 128k +3 was released it came with a built in floppy disk drive. As there were only so many games released on +3 disks, methods were used to transfer them from tape to disk. The standard loader was easy. All you had to do was type merge”” to get into the editor code and save that to a +3 disk (save”a:program-name”). Next you would load the loading screen higher into memory (load “screen-name” code 30000) and save that to a +3 disk. Finally you would do the same thing with the main code and add the load commands to the main header code.

For the more complicated loaders a suite of programs called “007 Trans-Master” was used to convert the files into the standard format so they could be saved to +3 disks.


The great thing about the Atari ST and Amiga computers was that you could lay your hands on hundreds of pieces of free software, no need to pirate commercial software. There were many PDLs (Public Domain Libraries) who would distribute free software for the price of a disk and postage, and for their distribution work. The actual software is free and covers anything from demos to games and pictures to music files. There was also the shareware method where you pay a small subscription fee to receive extras for full versions of the software and licenceware where the PDL would offer a small commission to the original contributor.

Atari ST software was normally copied using dedicated disk copiers such as “Fast Copy” while the Amiga used the popular “X-Copy”. However some disks were protected and therefore other more powerful copying software had to be used.


Software publishers have used many forms of production to deter copying such as the more complicated loaders on the Spectrum. Other methods would require the user entering a word or letter from the manual before they could get into the game, or choosing a series of colors or symbols from their book to match the ones on screen. Some games allow you to think you have copied them until you have played them for so long and notice some nasty surprise. The game “Shadow of the Beast” turns the screen upside down on certain levels for example.

This lead to the rise of Cracking Groups such as the famous “Pompey Pirates” on the Atari ST who would hack into the game and remove the copy protection. They would then release a number of games (hacked and packed) onto a single floppy disk which were passed around to various users.

Encryption Software

Encryption software carries out the encryption process using a special formula. This formula codes the information in such a way that it cannot be understood. The software has to be used to decrypt the information.

Encryption software uses an algorithm which is designed to code data in such a way that the data cannot be accessed without a key. The key is generated by the software and is known only to those who have the authority to use the software to encrypt data. Software encryption plays as a fundamental part in all aspects of modern communication and file security with features like file shredding. In general, the purpose of encryption is to prevent third parties from accessing the original information. Rijndael, Serpent, RC6, Twofish and MARS are few Encryption software.

While selecting the Encryption software, it is vital to check on the following factors:

  • Ease of Use – The software should be easy to install and operate. It must be very user friendly.
  • Data Security – The software should have stung encryption algorithm (minimum 256 bit AES or equivalent), shredding of the original files after encryption, high reliability (100 %) of data, and faster encryption / decryption with a password strength indicator to insure a strong password.
  • Feature Set – Ensure that you get all and the required features of the particular software that fulfills the purpose. It is advised to try the trial software before going for the original software.
  • Help and Documentation – Check if the software provides enough information on how to use it and on troubleshooting, through a thorough and comprehensive helps and documentation section.

Give PC a Monitor Makeover

Monitors are one segment where you are truly spoilt for choice.

Be it a 15-inch, 17-inch or 19-inch CRT monitor* or a sleeker range of LCD screens*, there is a wide range to fit your budget. Hardware Software Articles: http://www.hardwaresoftwarearticles.com/archive/index.php/

Size and resolution

There are two aspects you must consider when selecting a monitor: physical size and resolution.

Screen size is the diagonal screen measurement, usually in inches. For instance, a computer monitor display might be 14 inches wide and 11 inches tall. This same screen has a diagonal measurement of 19 inches, which is the screen size.

Monitors also have an aspect ratio.

This is the ratio between the horizontal dimension and the vertical dimension (horizontal dimension divided by vertical dimension). Common monitor aspect ratios are 4:3 (1.3333) and 5:4 (1.25). Basics: http://www.hardwaresoftwarearticles.com/archive/index.php/f-2.html

A 4:3 aspect ratio means the picture is 4 units wide for every three units of height.

Wide screen monitors are easier on the eye (and much more expensive).

The higher the resolution, the greater the ability to render more detail. If you work with graphics or enjoy graphic-intensive games, you will need a monitor with higher resolution.

With most currently available models being flat screened, the difference is in the size and picture quality. A resolution of 1024 x 768 is a good one for most users.

CRT monitors

If you’ve decided to get a new CRT, make sure it has a sufficiently high refresh rate. This refers to how often the screen is redrawn per second. With low refresh rates you can get screen flicker and eyestrain. Virus: http://www.hardwaresoftwarearticles.com/archive/index.php/f-14.html

Aim for a rate of 75 Hz for a monitor up to 17 inches in size and 85 Hz for any larger monitor.

Another consideration for CRTs is dot pitch. The smaller the dot pitch, the sharper the image. Opt for a dot pitch of 0.26 mm or smaller.

CRTs function very well at multiple resolutions, can display detailed graphics and can be viewed comfortably from wider angles.

LCD screens

One of the primary disadvantages of LCDs when compared to CRTs is their limited viewing angle. When viewing a LCD straight on, it looks great. But the screen will appear washed-out if you move your head over to the side and look at it from a wider angle.

Also, LCDs are optimised to perform at a single resolution. Low-end LCDs have viewing angles of only 100 degrees, which won’t give everyone crowded round your desk a clear view.

For a standard 15-inch LCD, try to get a 140 degree viewing angle. Increase that by 20-40 degrees when shopping for an 18-inch LCD.

The brightness of LCD monitors is an important factor. LCD monitors have several backlights that provide illumination. The backlights in a LCD are good for 10,000 to 50,000 hours of operation. Ensure that the backlights come with at least a one-year warranty. Messenger: http://www.hardwaresoftwarearticles.com/archive/index.php/f-7.html

Making a choice

LCD screens generally cause lesser strain to eyes than CRT monitors.

CRTs have better graphics, but they tend to occupy five times as much space.

If you are a gaming freak, then a CRT is a better option as it is best for any graphic interface.

Quickly Fill Blank Cells

Select Blank Cells

  1. First, select the range that contains blanks you need to fill. Choose Go To Special from the Find dropdown list in the Editing group on the Home tab. -OR- Press [Ctrl] + G for Go To
  2. Select Blanks. Quick Tip: Notice the additional options under Go To Special which are helpful with other Excel actions.
  3. When you click OK, Excel will select all the blank cells in selected range.

Copy Values from Above

  1. In the first selected blank cell (such as A3) enter an equal sign and point to the cell above. As the cell is already selected, you don’t have to actually click A3. Don’t press [Enter].
  2. Press [Ctrl] + [Enter] and Excel will copy the respective formula to all blank cells in the selected range. This keyboard shortcut can be used as a quick way of filling a lot of cells or copying a formula into a range when it is entered, rather than copying it separately afterwards.

At this point, the range contains literal values (the original values) and formulas that repeat those literal values. To preserve the displayed data, replace the formulas with their results (the repeated literal values).

Paste Values in Excel

  1. Select the range and copy using any technique you prefer, for example, the Excel keyboard shortcut [Ctrl] + C for copy.
  2. Right-click on the selection and choose Paste Values from the shortcut menu or pick Paste Values from the Paste drop-down list in the Clipboard group on the Home tab. You can also find Paste Values from the Paste Special menu option.
  3. With Paste Value, you just replaced the formulas with literal values.

Be careful if the range contained formulas before the process. You don’t want to overwrite those formulas, just the formulas you added to fill the blank cells. This technique won’t work with every sheet that contains blank cells but is a fast and easy way to repeat existing data and to quickly change downloaded data so you can get your work done in Excel.

Point of Sale Software


So in 1879, Ritty invented the “Incorruptible Cashier,” a device that registered transactions made at his business. Some time after that, he patented his invention and sold it to salesman Jacob H. Eckert, who founded the National Manufacturing Company (NMC). Eckert later sold the company to John H. Patterson, a retail coal shop owner in Coalton, Ohio.


Upon acquiring the business, Patterson renamed the company National Cash Register (NCR), which still exists today. He also added new features, such as custom employee drawers and bells, as well as the all-important paper receipts.

Electric and computerized point of sale systems arrive.

In 1906, inventor Charles F. Kettering, who worked for NCR, developed the first cash register powered by an electric motor. The device made it faster and easier for cashiers to ring up sales and keep tabs on transactions.


Over the next several decades, more improvements were made to the cash register, and NCR came up with better ways to market and sell the device. These efforts paid off well for the company. By the mid-1900s, the cash register had become a staple in retail stores.


In the 1970s, innovation helped traditional cash registers evolve into computerized point of sale systems. It was also during these years that devices such as credit card terminals and touchscreen displays were introduced.

By the time the 80s and 90s rolled along, the retail world saw the emergence of electronic registers, barcode scanners, PC-based point of sale systems, and credit card devices.

Point of sale systems go mobile.

Mobile point of sale (mPOS) solutions have made such a huge impact in the industry that in 2014 a majority of UK retailers (53%) rated mPOS as the most important in-store technology for consumers. mPOS systems are also gaining market share. In 2015, the IHL Group found that mobile POS software installs are up 41% in North America year to year.


Over the years, we’ve seen POS systems evolve from cash registers that simply ring up sales to full-fledged retail management solutions that allow retailers to stay on top of inventory, reporting, customer management, and ecommerce from one platform.


It’s not just features that have evolved. Thanks to the proliferation of mobile devices, retail point of sale solutions now look better than ever. Clunky registers and bulky computers are being replaced by sleek tablets and phones. These devices not only look good and save space, but they also help retailers improve the shopping experience.